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Ultra Wideband Antennas and Propagation for Communications, Radar and Imaging
판매가격 49,000원
저자 Allen
도서종류 외국도서
출판사 Wiley
발행언어 영어
발행일 2006-12-01
페이지수 508
ISBN 9780470032558
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  • 도서 정보

    도서 상세설명

    Editors xv
    Prime Contributors xvii
    Preface xxi
    Acknowledgments xxvii
    Abbreviations & Acronyms xxix
    Introduction to UWB Signals and Systems Andreas F. Molisch 1
    History of UWB 1
    Motivation 3
    Large Absolute Bandwidth 3
    Large Relative Bandwidth 5
    UWB Signals and Systems 6
    Impulse Radio 6
    DS-CDMA 8
    OFDM 9
    Frequency Hopping 10
    Radar 11
    Geolocation 11
    Frequency Regulation 12
    Applications, Operating Scenarios and Standardisation 13
    System Outlook 15
    References 16
    Fundamentals 19
    Introduction to Part I Wasim Q. Malik David J. Edwards 21
    Fundamental Electromagnetic Theory Mischa Dohler 25
    Introduction 25
    Maxwell\'s Equations 25
    Differential Formulation 25
    Interpretation 26
    Key to Antennas and Propagation 27
    SolvingMaxwell\'s Equations 28
    Harmonic Representation 29
    Resulting Principles 30
    References 30
    Basic Antenna Elements Mischa Dohler 31
    Introduction 31
    Hertzian Dipole 31
    Far-Field - Fraunhofer Region 33
    Near-Field-Fresnel Region 33
    Antenna Parameters and Terminology 34
    Polarisation 34
    Power Density 35
    Radiated Power 36
    Radiation Resistance 31
    Antenna Impedance 37
    Equivalent Circuit 37
    Antenna Matching 38
    Effective Length and Area 38
    Friis\' Transmission Formula 39
    Radiation Intensity 39
    Radiation Pattern 39
    (Antenna) Bandwidth 41
    Directive Gain, Directivity, Power Gain 41
    Radiation Efficiency 42
    Basic Antenna Elements 42
    Finite-Length Dipole 42
    Monopole 44
    Printed Antennas 45
    Wideband and Frequency-Independent Elements 45
    References 47
    Antenna Arrays Ernest E. Okon 49
    Introduction 49
    Point Sources 49
    Point Sources with Equal Amplitude and Phase 50
    Point Sources with Equal Amplitude and 180 Degrees Phase Difference 53
    Point Sources of Unequal Amplitude and Arbitrary Phase Difference 53
    The Principle of Pattern Multiplication 55
    Linear Arrays of n Elements 56
    Linear Broadside Arrays with Nonuniform Amplitude Distributions 58
    The Binomial Distribution 59
    The Dolph-Tschebyscheff Distribution 59
    Planar Arrays 62
    Rectangular Arrays 62
    Circular Arrays 63
    Design Considerations 65
    Mutual Coupling 65
    Array Gain 65
    Summary 66
    References 66
    Beamforming Ben Allen 67
    Introduction 67
    Historical Aspects 67
    Concept of Spatial Signal Processing 68
    Antenna Arrays 69
    Linear Array 70
    Circular Array 71
    Planar Array 72
    Conformal Arrays 72
    Adaptive Array Systems 73
    Spatial Filtering 73
    Adaptive Antenna Arrays 74
    Mutual Coupling and Correlation 74
    Beamforming 75
    Adaptive Antenna Technology 75
    Beam Steering 78
    Grating Lobes 83
    Amplitude Weights 84
    Window Functions 85
    Summary 86
    References 87
    Antenna Diversity Techniques Junsheng Liu Wasim Q. Malik David J. Edwards Mohammad Ghavami 89
    Introduction 89
    A Review of Fading 89
    Signal Fading 90
    Channel Distribution 91
    Receive Diversity 93
    Single Branch without Diversity 93
    General Combining Schemes for Receive Diversity 95
    Maximum Ratio Combining 96
    Equal Gain Combining 98
    Selection Combining and Switched Diversity 99
    Fading Correlation 99
    Transmit Diversity 100
    Channel Unknown to the Transmitter 101
    Channel Known to the Transmitter 102
    MIMO Diversity Systems 102
    References 103
    Antennas for UWB Communications 105
    Introduction to Part II Ernest E. Okon 107
    Theory of UWB Antenna Elements Xiaodong Chen 111
    Introduction 111
    Mechanism of UWB Monopole Antennas 112
    Basic Features of a CPW-Fed Disc Monopole 112
    Design Analysis 118
    Operating Principle of UWB Monopole Antennas 120
    Planar UWB Monopole Antennas 121
    CPW-Fed Circular Disc Monopole 121
    Microstrip Line Fed Circular Disc Monopole 125
    Other Shaped Disc Monopoles 129
    Planar UWB Slot Antennas 132
    Microstrip/CPW Feed Slot Antenna Designs 132
    Performance of Elliptical/Circular Slot Antennas 134
    Design Analysis 138
    Time-Domain Characteristics of Monopoles 140
    Time-Domain Performance of Disc Monopoles 142
    Time-Domain Performance of Slot Antenna 143
    Summary 144
    Acknowledgements 144
    References 144
    Antenna Elements for Impulse Radio Zhi Ning Chen 147
    Introduction 147
    UWB Antenna Classification and Design Considerations 148
    Classification of UWB Antennas 148
    Design Considerations 150
    Omnidirectional and Directional Designs 153
    Omnidirectional Roll Antenna 153
    Directional Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna 155
    Summary 160
    References 161
    Planar Dipole-like Antennas for Consumer Products Peter Massey 163
    Introduction 163
    Computer Modelling and Measurement Techniques 164
    Bicone Antennas and the Lossy Transmission Line Model 164
    Planar Dipoles 167
    Bowtie Dipoles 167
    Elliptical Element Dipoles 171
    Fan Element Dipoles 173
    Diamond Dipoles 176
    Practical Antennas 178
    Printed Elliptical Dipoles 178
    Line-Matched Monopoles 185
    Vivaldi Antenna 189
    Summary 194
    Acknowledgements 195
    References 195
    UWB Antenna Elements for Consumer Electronic Applications Dirk Manteuffel 197
    Introduction 197
    Numerical Modelling and Extraction of the UWB Characterisation 199
    FDTD Modelling 199
    UWB Antenna Characterisation by Spatio-Temporal Transfer Functions 201
    Calculation of Typical UWB Antenna Measures from the Transfer Function of the Antenna 202
    Example 204
    Antenna Design and Integration 205
    Antenna Element Design and Optimisation 206
    Antenna Integration into a DVD Player 208
    Antenna Integration into a Mobile Device 211
    Conclusion 213
    Propagation Modelling 214
    System Analysis 215
    Conclusions 218
    References 220
    Ultra-wideband Arrays Ernest E. Okon 221
    Introduction 221
    Linear Arrays 221
    Broadside Array 222
    End-fire Array 222
    End-fire Array with Increased Directivity 224
    Scanning Arrays 224
    Null and Maximum Directions for Uniform Arrays 225
    Null Directions 225
    Maximum Directions 226
    Circle Representations 228
    Phased Arrays 230
    Element Spacing Required to Avoid Grating Lobes 231
    Elements for UWB Array Design 232
    Modelling Considerations 234
    Feed Configurations 234
    Active Array 235
    Passive Array 235
    Design Considerations 238
    Summary 239
    References 240
    UWB Beamforming Mohammad Ghavami Kaveh Heidary 241
    Introduction 241
    Basic Concept 242
    A Simple Delay-line Transmitter Wideband Array 243
    Angles of Grating Lobes 246
    Inter-null Beamwidth 248
    UWB Mono-pulse Arrays 249
    Problem Formulation 249
    Computed Results 251
    Summary 257
    References 258
    Propagation Measurements and Modelling for UWB Communications 259
    Introduction to Part III Mischa Dohler Ben Allen 261
    Analysis of UWB Signal Attenuation Through Typical Building Materials Domenico Porcino 265
    Introduction 265
    A Brief Overview of Channel Characteristics 267
    The Materials Under Test 270
    Experimental Campaign 272
    Equipment Configuration 275
    Results 278
    Conclusions 281
    References 281
    Large- and Medium-scale Propagation Modelling Mischa Dohler Junsheng Liu R. Michael Buehrer Swaroop Venkatesh Ben Allen 283
    Introduction 283
    Deterministic Models 284
    Free-space Pathloss - Excluding the Effect of Antennas 284
    Free-space Pathloss - Considering the Effect of Antennas 287
    Breakpoint Model 291
    Ray-tracing and FDTD Approaches 296
    Statistical-Empirical Models 297
    Pathloss Coefficient 297
    Shadowing 301
    Standardised Reference Models 303
    IEEE 802.15.3a 304
    IEEE 802.15.4a 304
    Conclusions 306
    References 306
    Small-scale Ultra-wideband Propagation Modelling Swaroop Venkatesh R. Michael Buehrer Junsheng Liu Mischa Dohler 309
    Introduction 309
    Small-scale Channel Modelling 310
    Statistical Characterisation of the Channel Impulse Response 310
    Deconvolution Methods and the Clean Algorithm 312
    The Saleh-Valenzuela Model 312
    Other Temporal Models 316
    Spatial Modelling 321
    IEEE 802.15.3a Standard Model 324
    IEEE 802.15.4a Standard Model 325
    Summary 327
    References 327
    Antenna Design and Propagation Measurements and Modelling for UWB Wireless BAN Yang Hao Akram Alomainy Yan Zhao 331
    Introduction 331
    Propagation Channel Measurements and Characteristics 332
    Antenna Element Design Requirements for WBAN 332
    Antennas for UWB Wireless BAN Applications 333
    On-Body Radio Channel Measurements 335
    Propagation Channel Characteristics 338
    WBAN Channel Modelling 345
    Radio Channel Modelling Considerations 346
    Two-Dimensional On-Body Propagation Channels 349
    Three-Dimensional On-Body Propagation Channels 350
    Pathloss Modelling 351
    UWB System-Level Modelling of Potential Body-Centric Networks 353
    System-Level Modelling 353
    Performance Analysis 354
    Summary 355
    References 358
    Ultra-wideband Spatial Channel Characteristics Wasim Q. Malik Junsheng Liu Ben Allen David J. Edwards 361
    Introduction 361
    Preliminaries 361
    UWB Spatial Channel Representation 362
    Characterisation Techniques 363
    Increase in the Communication Rate 364
    UWB Channel Capacity 364
    Capacity with CSIR Only 365
    Capacity with CSIT 366
    Statistical Characterisation 366
    Experimental Evaluation of Capacity 367
    Signal Quality Improvement 370
    UWB SNR Gain 371
    SNR Gain with CSIR Only 371
    SNR Gain with CSIT 371
    Statistical Characterisation 372
    Experimental Evaluation of Diversity 372
    Coverage Range Extension 375
    Performance Parameters 375
    Spatial Fading Correlation 375
    Eigen Spectrum 377
    Angular Spread 379
    Array Orientation 379
    Channel Memory 380
    Channel Information Quality 380
    Summary 381
    References 381
    UWB Radar, Imaging and Ranging 385
    Introduction to Part IV Anthony K. Brown 387
    Localisation in NLOS Scenarios with UWB Antenna Arrays Thomas Kaiser Christiane Senger Amr Eltaher Bamrung Tau Sieskul 389
    Introduction 389
    Underlying Mathematical Framework 394
    Properties of UWB Beamforming 398
    Beamloc Approach 401
    Algorithmic Framework 403
    Time-delay Estimation 404
    Simulation Results 406
    Conclusions 410
    References 410
    Antennas for Ground-penetrating Radar Ian Craddock 413
    Introduction 413
    GPR Example Applications 413
    GPR for Demining 413
    Utility Location and Road Inspection 414
    Archaeology and Forensics 416
    Built-structure Imaging 418
    Analysis and GPR Design 419
    Typical GPR Configuration 419
    RF Propagation in Lossy Media 420
    Radar Waveform Choice 423
    Other Antenna Design Criteria 424
    Antenna Elements 425
    Dipole, Resistively Loaded Dipole and Monopoles 425
    Bicone and Bowtie 426
    Horn Antennas 428
    Vivaldi Antenna 428
    CPW-fed Slot Antenna 429
    Spiral Antennas 429
    Antenna Measurements, Analysis and Simulation 430
    Antenna Measurement 430
    Antenna Analysis and Simulation 432
    Conclusions 433
    Acknowledgements 434
    References 434
    Wideband Antennas for Biomedical Imaging Ian Craddock 437
    Introduction 437
    Detection and Imaging 437
    Breast Cancer Detection Using Radio Waves 437
    Radio-wave Imaging of the Breast 438
    Waveform Choice and Antenna Design Criteria 440
    Antenna Elements 441
    Dipoles, Resistively Loaded Dipoles and Monopoles 441
    Bowtie 442
    Horn Antennas 443
    Spiral Antennas 443
    Stacked-patch Antennas 444
    Measurements, Analysis and Simulation 445
    Antenna Measurement 445
    Antenna Analysis and Simulation 446
    Conclusions 447
    Acknowledgements 448
    References 448
    UWB Antennas for Radar and Related Applications Anthony K. Brown 451
    Introduction 451
    Medium- and Long-Range Radar 452
    UWB Reflector Antennas 453
    Definitions 453
    Equivalent Aperture Model for Impulse Radiation 454
    Parabolic Antenna 456
    UWB Feed Designs 459
    Feed Pattern Effects 460
    Phase Centre Location 460
    Input Impedance 460
    Polarisation 460
    Blockage Effects 461
    Feeds with Low Dispersion 461
    Planar Spiral Antennas 461
    TEM Feeds 462
    Impulse Radiating Antenna (IRA) 466
    Summary 468
    References 468
    Index 471
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